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Titanium Preparation Method

wallpapers News 2020-12-28
Among the metal elements, titanium has a high specific strength. It is a high-strength but low-quality metal with fairly good ductility (especially in an oxygen-free environment). The surface of titanium is silver-white and metallic. Its melting point is quite high (over 1,649 degrees Celsius), so it is a good refractory metal material. It is paramagnetic, and its electrical and thermal conductivity are very low.
There are four main steps for processing titanium metal: 1. Reducing titanium ore into a "sponge body" (a gas-permeable form); 2. Making an ingot and melting the sponge body (or using a sponge body and a master alloy) to form it Ingot casting; 3. Preliminary manufacturing, making the ingot into general mechanical products, such as billets, rods, plates, sheets, bars and tubes; 4. Processing and manufacturing, further processing and forming mechanical products.

Because titanium reacts with oxygen at high temperatures, reduction reactions cannot be used to extract titanium from oxides. Therefore, the Kroll process is used for commercial extraction of titanium, a complicated and expensive batch process. (The market price of titanium is relatively high because of the need to oxidize another expensive metal—magnesium during the refining process.) In the Kroll process, the oxide is first carbon-chlorinated and converted into chloride. In the presence of carbon, the medium chlorine will pass through the red hot rutile or ilmenite to generate titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4). After the chloride is concentrated and purified by fractional distillation, it is reduced to titanium by molten magnesium in argon at 800 degrees Celsius.
A recently developed refining method, the FFC Cambridge method, may completely replace the Kroll method in the future. The raw material of this method is powdered titanium dioxide (a refined rutile), and the final product is titanium powder or sponge. If powdery oxide is mixed into the powder of the raw material, the finished product will be a cheap titanium alloy, which is much cheaper than using the general multi-step melting method. The FFC Cambridge method makes titanium not so scarce and expensive as before. It can provide more choices for the aerospace industry and the luxury goods market, and can replace aluminum or special grade steel in some products.

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